Diabetes is the reason why it is necessary to keep to diet, constantly monitor blood sugar level, take medications on time and worry about such disease consequences as coma, blindness or legs amputation. But you can lead active lifestyle with diabetes. The main thing is not to miss the beginning of the disease.
What is Diabetes and its Types?
Diabetes is a chronic disease, which is associated with metabolic disorders, namely with insulin. Insulin is a hormone which affects carbohydrate metabolism and on how glucose from food is absorbed. It is a guide without which no glucose gets into cells of the body. That is, it will not feed them and will remain in blood, disrupting nervous tissues and organs.Diabetes can be of different types:
- Type I diabetes – insulin-dependent. It develops when the body produces no insulin. There is not enough hormone so you need to enter it from the outside. This type of diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and adolescents and no one can tell exactly what triggers the disease.
- Type II diabetes – insulin-independent. In this case, insulin is produced, but the body can not use it. It is the most common type of diabetes, which largely depends on lifestyle.
- Gestational diabetes. It manifests in pregnant women.
Signs of Diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes are slightly different depending on its type. Common complaints are:
- constant thirst, during a day more than three liters of water are consumed;
- frequent visits to the bathroom, especially at night;
- growing appetite with weight loss (on early stages);
- itchy skin;
- slow healing process;
- constant fatigue, memory deterioration;
- numb fingertips.
At type I diabetes patient’s breath smells like acetone, skin peels off. Such diabetes may occur abruptly, accompanied by bouts of headaches and vomiting and can even cause coma, especially if early signs were unnoticed.
Type II diabetes often remains unnoticed until it leads to other difficulties: problems with potency, vision loss, kidney diseases, heart attack.
Who can Get Diabetes?
You can not tell that a person has type I diabetes, until carbohydrate metabolism in the body is disturbed and first symptoms appear:
- changes in tests indicators.
Type II diabetes usually affects overweight people and people performing low activity, so that it can be partially prevented: keep to diet and perform physical activity.
Factors that increase risk of diabetes of any type:
- hereditary predisposition. If patient’s relatives suffer from the disease, chances of diabetes are higher;
- pancreas disorders. Insulin is produced by pancreatic gland and if there are some disorders in this body, there also may appear some problems with the hormone;
- endocrine system diseases. Diabetes is a hormonal disturbance. If there is predisposition to such diseases, risk of diabetes is also present;
- viral infections. Chicken pox, rubella, mumps, and even flu can trigger diabetes.
How to Check and Protect Yourself
If you notice suspicious symptoms you should visit endocrinologist and undertake required tests. Fasting blood from a finger (for blood sugar test), urine glucose test, glucose tolerance test, insulin , C-peptide and glycated hemoglobin in blood levels determination (the latter three tests are taken from the vein). These surveys are enough to detect signs of diabetes and determine its type.If obvious signs of diabetes are not present, but you are at risk group, undertake blood tests for sugar every year. Healthy people need to undertake examinations every three years.
To consciously not put yourself at risk you need:
- maintain healthy weight;
- engage in physical activity at least half an hour a day;
- eat less sugar and saturated fats;
- not smoke.
This article is presented by My Canadian Pharmacy team. We hope you find it usefull and informative. Read more medical articles in our «News» category.